Queen Lili'uokalani was the 8th and last ruling Monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom from January 29, 1891 to January 17, 1893.
She became monarch on January 29, 1891, after her brother King David Kalakaua's death. During her reign, she attempted to draft a new constitution which would restore the power of the monarchy and the voting rights of the economically disenfranchised. Threatened by her attempts to abrogate the Bayonet Constitution, pro-American elements in Hawaii illegally overthrew the Hawaiian Kingdom on January 17, 1893. The overthrow was backed by the landing of U.S. Marines under minister John L. Stevens, which rendered the monarchy unable to protect itself. After the failed 1895 Wilcox Rebellion, the government of the Republic of Hawaii placed the former queen under house arrest at the ʻIolani Palace. Attempts were made to restore the monarchy and oppose annexation to United States, but with the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, the United States annexed the Republic of Hawaii. Living out the remainder of her later life as a private citizen, Queen Liliʻuokalani died at her residence of Washington Place in November 11, 1917.
Exactly 100 years later on November 23, 1993, President Bill Clinton signed into law, the United States Public Law 103-150, informally known as the Apology Resolution, which is a Joint Resolution of the U.S. Congress adopted in 1993 that "acknowledges that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with the active participation of agents and citizens of the United States and further acknowledges that the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum".The resolution has been cited as a major impetus for the Hawaiian sovereignty movement, and has been the subject of intense debate.